With the evolution of computing and communication technology, cyber-physical systems such as self-driving cars, unmanned aerial vehicles, and mobile cognitive robots are achieving increasing levels of multifunctionality and miniaturization, enabling them to execute versatile tasks in a resource-constrained environment. Therefore, the computing systems that power these resource-constrained cyber-physical systems (RCCPSs) have to achieve high efficiency and scalability. First of all, given a fixed amount of onboard energy, these computing systems should not only be power-efficient but also exhibit sufficiently high performance to gracefully handle complex algorithms for learning-based perception and AI-driven decision-making. Meanwhile, scalability requires that the current computing system and its components can be extended both horizontally, with more resources, and vertically, with emerging advanced technology. To achieve efficient and scalable computing systems in RCCPSs, my research broadly investigates a set of techniques and solutions via a bottom-up layered approach. This layered approach leverages the characteristics of each system layer (e.g., the circuit, architecture, and operating system layers) and their interactions to discover and explore the optimal system tradeoffs among performance, efficiency, and scalability. At the circuit layer, we investigate the benefits of novel power delivery and management schemes enabled by integrated voltage regulators (IVRs). Then, between the circuit and microarchitecture/architecture layers, we present a voltage-stacked power delivery system that offers best-in-class power delivery efficiency for many-core systems. After this, using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) as a case study, we develop a real-time resource scheduling framework at the architecture and operating system layers for heterogeneous computing platforms with guaranteed task deadlines. Finally, fast dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS) based power management across the circuit, architecture, and operating system layers is studied through a learning-based hierarchical power management strategy for multi-/many-core systems.
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